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Neon tube lighting, which also includes the use of argon and mercury vapor as alternative gases, came to be used primarily for eye-catching signs and advertisements.

Neon lighting was relevant to the development of fluorescent lighting, however, as Claude's improved electrode patented in overcame "sputtering", a major source of electrode degradation.

Sputtering occurred when ionized particles struck an electrode and tore off bits of metal. Although Claude's invention required electrodes with a lot of surface area, it showed that a major impediment to gas-based lighting could be overcome.

The development of the neon light also was significant for the last key element of the fluorescent lamp, its fluorescent coating.

This, however, was not the first use of fluorescent coatings; Becquerel had earlier used the idea and Edison used calcium tungstate for his unsuccessful lamp.

A German patent was granted but the lamp never went into commercial production. All the major features of fluorescent lighting were in place at the end of the s.

Decades of invention and development had provided the key components of fluorescent lamps: economically manufactured glass tubing, inert gases for filling the tubes, electrical ballasts, long-lasting electrodes, mercury vapor as a source of luminescence, effective means of producing a reliable electrical discharge, and fluorescent coatings that could be energized by ultraviolet light.

At this point, intensive development was more important than basic research. In , Arthur Compton , a renowned physicist and GE consultant, reported to the GE lamp department on successful experiments with fluorescent lighting at General Electric Co.

Stimulated by this report, and with all of the key elements available, a team led by George E. This was not a trivial exercise; as noted by Arthur A.

Bright, "A great deal of experimentation had to be done on lamp sizes and shapes, cathode construction, gas pressures of both argon and mercury vapor, colors of fluorescent powders, methods of attaching them to the inside of the tube, and other details of the lamp and its auxiliaries before the new device was ready for the public.

More important than these was a patent covering an electrode that did not disintegrate at the gas pressures that ultimately were employed in fluorescent lamps.

Albert W. Hull of GE's Schenectady Research Laboratory filed for a patent on this invention in , which was issued in Eventually, war production required hour factories with economical lighting and fluorescent lights became available.

While the Hull patent gave GE a basis for claiming legal rights over the fluorescent lamp, a few months after the lamp went into production the firm learned of a U.

The patent application indicated that the lamp had been created as a superior means of producing ultraviolet light, but the application also contained a few statements referring to fluorescent illumination.

Efforts to obtain a U. At first, GE sought to block the issuance of a patent by claiming that priority should go to one of their employees, Leroy J.

Buttolph, who according to their claim had invented a fluorescent lamp in and whose patent application was still pending.

In GE decided that the claim of Meyer, Spanner, and Germer had some merit, and that in any event a long interference procedure was not in their best interest.

The patent was duly awarded in December Even though the patent issue was not completely resolved for many years, General Electric's strength in manufacturing and marketing gave it a pre-eminent position in the emerging fluorescent light market.

Sales of "fluorescent lumiline lamps" commenced in when four different sizes of tubes were put on the market.

They were used in fixtures manufactured by three leading corporations, Lightolier , Artcraft Fluorescent Lighting Corporation , and Globe Lighting.

Fluorescent lighting systems spread rapidly during World War II as wartime manufacturing intensified lighting demand. By more light was produced in the United States by fluorescent lamps than by incandescent lamps.

In the first years zinc orthosilicate with varying content of beryllium was used as greenish phosphor. Small additions of magnesium tungstate improved the blue part of the spectrum yielding acceptable white.

After it was discovered that beryllium was toxic , halophosphate based phosphors took over. The fundamental mechanism for conversion of electrical energy to light is emission of a photon when an electron in a mercury atom falls from an excited state into a lower energy level.

Electrons flowing in the arc collide with the mercury atoms. If the incident electron has enough kinetic energy , it transfers energy to the atom's outer electron, causing that electron to temporarily jump up to a higher energy level that is not stable.

The atom will emit an ultraviolet photon as the atom's electron reverts to a lower, more stable, energy level. Most of the photons that are released from the mercury atoms have wavelengths in the ultraviolet UV region of the spectrum, predominantly at wavelengths of These are not visible to the human eye, so ultraviolet energy is converted to visible light by the fluorescence of the inner phosphor coating.

The difference in energy between the absorbed ultra-violet photon and the emitted visible light photon goes toward heating up the phosphor coating.

Electric current flows through the tube in a low-pressure arc discharge. Electrons collide with and ionize noble gas atoms inside the bulb surrounding the filament to form a plasma by the process of impact ionization.

As a result of avalanche ionization , the conductivity of the ionized gas rapidly rises, allowing higher currents to flow through the lamp.

The fill gas helps determine the electrical characteristics of the lamp, but does not give off light itself. The fill gas effectively increases the distance that electrons travel through the tube, which allows an electron a greater chance of interacting with a mercury atom.

Additionally, argon atoms, excited to a metastable state by impact of an electron, can impart energy to a mercury atom and ionize it, described as the Penning effect.

This lowers the breakdown and operating voltage of the lamp, compared to other possible fill gases such as krypton. A fluorescent lamp tube is filled with a mix of argon , xenon , neon , or krypton , and mercury vapor.

The pressure inside the lamp is around 0. The lamp's electrodes are typically made of coiled tungsten and are coated with a mixture of barium, strontium and calcium oxides to improve thermionic emission.

Fluorescent lamp tubes are often straight and range in length from about millimeters 3. Some lamps have the tube bent into a circle, used for table lamps or other places where a more compact light source is desired.

Larger U-shaped lamps are used to provide the same amount of light in a more compact area, and are used for special architectural purposes.

Compact fluorescent lamps have several small-diameter tubes joined in a bundle of two, four, or six, or a small diameter tube coiled into a helix, to provide a high amount of light output in little volume.

Light-emitting phosphors are applied as a paint-like coating to the inside of the tube. The organic solvents are allowed to evaporate, then the tube is heated to nearly the melting point of glass to drive off remaining organic compounds and fuse the coating to the lamp tube.

Careful control of the grain size of the suspended phosphors is necessary; large grains lead to weak coatings, and small particles leads to poor light maintenance and efficiency.

Most phosphors perform best with a particle size around 10 micrometers. The coating must be thick enough to capture all the ultraviolet light produced by the mercury arc, but not so thick that the phosphor coating absorbs too much visible light.

The first phosphors were synthetic versions of naturally occurring fluorescent minerals, with small amounts of metals added as activators.

Later other compounds were discovered, allowing differing colors of lamps to be made. Fluorescent lamps are negative differential resistance devices, so as more current flows through them, the electrical resistance of the fluorescent lamp drops, allowing for even more current to flow.

Connected directly to a constant-voltage power supply , a fluorescent lamp would rapidly self-destruct because of the uncontrolled current flow.

To prevent this, fluorescent lamps must use a ballast to regulate the current flow through the lamp. The terminal voltage across an operating lamp varies depending on the arc current, tube diameter, temperature, and fill gas.

High output lamps operate at mA, and some types operate up to 1. The simplest ballast for alternating current AC use is an inductor placed in series, consisting of a winding on a laminated magnetic core.

The inductance of this winding limits the flow of AC current. This type is still used, for example, in volt operated desk lamps using relatively short lamps.

Ballasts are rated for the size of lamp and power frequency. Where the AC voltage is insufficient to start long fluorescent lamps, the ballast is often a step-up autotransformer with substantial leakage inductance so as to limit the current flow.

Either form of inductive ballast may also include a capacitor for power factor correction. Fluorescent lamps can run directly from a direct current DC supply of sufficient voltage to strike an arc.

The ballast must be resistive, and would consume about as much power as the lamp. When operated from DC, the starting switch is often arranged to reverse the polarity of the supply to the lamp each time it is started; otherwise, the mercury accumulates at one end of the tube.

Fluorescent lamps are almost never operated directly from DC for those reasons. Instead, an inverter converts the DC into AC and provides the current-limiting function as described below for electronic ballasts.

The performance of fluorescent lamps is critically affected by the temperature of the bulb wall and its effect on the partial pressure of mercury vapor within the lamp.

Using an amalgam with some other metal reduces the vapor pressure and extends the optimum temperature range upward; however, the bulb wall "cold spot" temperature must still be controlled to prevent condensing.

High-output fluorescent lamps have features such as a deformed tube or internal heat-sinks to control cold spot temperature and mercury distribution.

Heavily loaded small lamps, such as compact fluorescent lamps, also include heat-sink areas in the tube to maintain mercury vapor pressure at the optimum value.

Only a fraction of the electrical energy input into a lamp is converted to useful light. A fixed voltage drop occurs at the electrodes, which also produces heat.

Not all the UV radiation striking the phosphor coating is converted to visible light; some energy is lost. The largest single loss in modern lamps is due to the lower energy of each photon of visible light, compared to the energy of the UV photons that generated them a phenomenon called Stokes shift.

Incident photons have an energy of 5. Most fluorescent lamps use electrodes that emit electrons into the tube by heat. However, cold cathode tubes have cathodes that emit electrons only due to the large voltage between the electrodes.

The cathodes will be warmed by current flowing through them, but are not hot enough for significant thermionic emission.

Because cold cathode lamps have no thermionic emission coating to wear out, they can have much longer lives than hot cathode tubes.

This makes them desirable for long-life applications such as backlights in liquid crystal displays. Sputtering of the electrode may still occur, but electrodes can be shaped e.

Cold cathode lamps are generally less efficient than thermionic emission lamps because the cathode fall voltage is much higher. Power dissipated due to cathode fall voltage does not contribute to light output.

However, this is less significant with longer tubes. The increased power dissipation at tube ends also usually means cold cathode tubes have to be run at a lower loading than their thermionic emission equivalents.

Given the higher tube voltage required anyway, these tubes can easily be made long, and even run as series strings. They are better suited for bending into special shapes for lettering and signage, and can also be instantly switched on or off.

The gas used in the fluorescent tube must be ionized before the arc can "strike". For small lamps, it does not take much voltage to strike the arc and starting the lamp presents no problem, but larger tubes require a substantial voltage in the range of a thousand volts.

Many different starting circuits have been used. The choice of circuit is based on cost, AC voltage, tube length, instant versus non-instant starting, temperature ranges and parts availability.

This technique uses a combination filament — cathode at each end of the lamp in conjunction with a mechanical or automatic bi-metallic switch see circuit diagram to the right that initially connect the filaments in series with the ballast to preheat them; when the arc is struck the filaments are disconnected.

This system is described as preheat in some countries and switchstart in others. Before the s, four-pin thermal starters and manual switches were used.

It consists of a normally open bi-metallic switch in a small sealed gas-discharge lamp containing inert gas neon or argon.

The glow switch will cyclically warm the filaments and initiate a pulse voltage to strike the arc; the process repeats until the lamp is lit.

Once the tube strikes, the impinging main discharge keeps the cathodes hot, permitting continued electron emission. The starter switch does not close again because the voltage across the lit tube is insufficient to start a glow discharge in the starter.

With glow switch starters a failing tube will cycle repeatedly. Some starter systems used a thermal over-current trip to detect repeated starting attempts and disable the circuit until manually reset.

A power factor correction PFC capacitor draws leading current from the mains to compensate for the lagging current drawn by the lamp circuit.

Instant start fluorescent tubes simply use a high enough voltage to break down the gas and mercury column and thereby start arc conduction.

These tubes have no filaments and can be identified by a single pin at each end of the tube. The lamp holders have a "disconnect" socket at the low-voltage end which disconnects the ballast when the tube is removed, to prevent electric shock.

In North America, low-cost lighting fixtures with an integrated electronic ballast use instant start on lamps originally designed for preheating, although it shortens lamp life.

Rapid start ballast designs provide windings within the ballast that continuously warm the cathode filaments. Usually operating at a lower arc voltage than the instant start design; no inductive voltage spike is produced for starting, so the lamps must be mounted near a grounded earthed reflector to allow the glow discharge to propagate through the tube and initiate the arc discharge [ why?

In some lamps a grounded "starting aid" strip is attached to the outside of the lamp glass. This ballast type is incompatible with the European energy saver T8 fluorescent lamps because these lamps requires a higher starting voltage than that of the open circuit voltage of rapid start ballasts.

Quick-start ballasts use a small auto-transformer to heat the filaments when power is first applied.

When an arc strikes, the filament heating power is reduced and the tube will start within half a second. The auto-transformer is either combined with the ballast or may be a separate unit.

Tubes need to be mounted near an earthed metal reflector in order for them to strike. Quick-start ballasts are more common in commercial installations because of lower maintenance costs.

A quick-start ballast eliminates the need for a starter switch, a common source of lamp failures. Nonetheless, Quick-start ballasts are also used in domestic residential installations because of the desirable feature that a Quick-start ballast light turns on nearly immediately after power is applied when a switch is turned on.

The semi-resonant start circuit was invented by Thorn Lighting for use with T12 fluorescent tubes. This method uses a double wound transformer and a capacitor.

With no arc current, the transformer and capacitor resonate at line frequency and generate about twice the supply voltage across the tube, and a small electrode heating current.

As the electrodes heat, the lamp slowly, over three to five seconds, reaches full brightness. As the arc current increases and tube voltage drops, the circuit provides current limiting.

Semi-resonant start circuits are mainly restricted to use in commercial installations because of the higher initial cost of circuit components.

However, there are no starter switches to be replaced and cathode damage is reduced during starting making lamps last longer, reducing maintenance costs.

Because of the high open circuit tube voltage, this starting method is particularly good for starting tubes in cold locations.

Additionally, the circuit power factor is almost 1. As the design requires that twice the supply voltage must be lower than the cold-cathode striking voltage or the tubes would erroneously instant-start , this design cannot be used with volt AC power unless the tubes are at least 1.

Semi-resonant start fixtures are generally incompatible with energy saving T8 retrofit tubes, because such tubes have a higher starting voltage than T12 lamps and may not start reliably, especially in low temperatures.

Recent proposals in some countries to phase out T12 tubes will reduce the application of this starting method.

Electronic starters use a different method to preheat the cathodes. They use a semiconductor switch and "soft start" the lamp by preheating the cathodes before applying a starting pulse which strikes the lamp first time without flickering; this dislodges a minimal amount of material from the cathodes during starting, giving longer lamp life.

The circuit is typically complex, but the complexity is built into the IC. Electronic starters may be optimized for fast starting typical start time of 0.

Electronic starters only attempt to start a lamp for a short time when power is initially applied, and do not repeatedly attempt to restrike a lamp that is dead and unable to sustain an arc; some automatically shut down a failed lamp.

Electronic starters are not subject to wear and do not need replacing periodically, although they may fail like any other electronic circuit.

Manufacturers typically quote lives of 20 years, or as long as the light fitting. Electronic ballasts employ transistors to change the supply frequency into high- frequency AC while regulating the current flow in the lamp.

When the AC period is shorter than the relaxation time to de-ionize mercury atoms in the discharge column, the discharge stays closer to optimum operating condition.

The conversion can reduce lamp brightness modulation at twice the power supply frequency. Low cost ballasts contain only a simple oscillator and series resonant LC circuit.

This principle is called the current resonant inverter circuit. The cathode filaments are still used for protection of the ballast from overheating if the lamp does not ignite.

A few manufacturers use positive temperature coefficient PTC thermistors to disable instant starting and give some time to preheat the filaments.

More complex electronic ballasts use programmed start. The output frequency is started above the resonance frequency of the output circuit of the ballast; and after the filaments are heated, the frequency is rapidly decreased.

If the frequency approaches the resonant frequency of the ballast, the output voltage will increase so much that the lamp will ignite. If the lamp does not ignite, an electronic circuit stops the operation of the ballast.

Many electronic ballasts are controlled by a microcontroller , and these are sometimes called digital ballasts.

Digital ballasts can apply quite complex logic to lamp starting and operation. This enables functions such as testing for broken electrodes and missing tubes before attempting to start, detection of tube replacement, and detection of tube type, such that a single ballast can be used with several different tubes.

Features such as dimming can be included in the embedded microcontroller software, and can be found in various manufacturers' products.

Since introduction in the s, high-frequency ballasts have been used in general lighting fixtures with either rapid start or pre-heat lamps. These ballasts convert the incoming power to an output frequency in excess of 20 kHz.

This increases lamp efficiency. The life expectancy of a fluorescent lamp is primarily limited by the life of the cathode electrodes.

To sustain an adequate current level, the electrodes are coated with an emission mixture of metal oxides. Every time the lamp is started, and during operation, some small amount of the cathode coating is sputtered off the electrodes by the impact of electrons and heavy ions within the tube.

The sputtered material collects on the walls of the tube, darkening it. The starting method and frequency affects cathode sputtering.

A filament may also break, disabling the lamp. Low-mercury designs of lamps may fail when mercury is absorbed by the glass tube, phosphor, and internal components, and is no longer available to vaporize in the fill gas.

Loss of mercury initially causes an extended run-up time to full light output, and finally causes the lamp to glow a dim pink when the argon gas takes over as the primary discharge.

Subjecting the tube to asymmetric current flow, effectively operates it under a DC bias, and causes asymmetric distribution of mercury ions along the tube.

The localized depletion of mercury vapor pressure manifests as pink luminescence of the base gas in the vicinity of one of the electrodes, and the operating lifetime of the lamp may be dramatically shortened.

This can be an issue with some poorly designed inverters. The phosphors lining the lamp degrade with time as well, until a lamp no longer produces an acceptable fraction of its initial light output.

Failure of the integral electronic ballast of a compact fluorescent bulb will also end its usable life.

The spectrum of light emitted from a fluorescent lamp is the combination of light directly emitted by the mercury vapor, and light emitted by the phosphorescent coating.

The spectral lines from the mercury emission and the phosphorescence effect give a combined spectral distribution of light that is different from those produced by incandescent sources.

The relative intensity of light emitted in each narrow band of wavelengths over the visible spectrum is in different proportions compared to that of an incandescent source.

Colored objects are perceived differently under light sources with differing spectral distributions. For example, some people find the color rendition produced by some fluorescent lamps to be harsh and displeasing.

A healthy person can sometimes appear to have an unhealthy skin tone under fluorescent lighting. The extent to which this phenomenon occurs is related to the light's spectral composition, and may be gauged by its color rendering index CRI.

Correlated color temperature CCT is a measure of the "shade" of whiteness of a light source compared with a blackbody. Typical incandescent lighting is K, which is yellowish-white.

Warm-white fluorescents have CCT of K and are popular for residential lighting. Cool-white fluorescents have a CCT of K and are popular for office lighting.

High CCT lighting generally requires higher light levels. At dimmer illumination levels, the human eye perceives lower color temperatures as more pleasant, as related through the Kruithof curve.

So, a dim K incandescent lamp appears comfortable and a bright K lamp also appears natural, but a dim K fluorescent lamp appears too pale.

Daylight-type fluorescents look natural only if they are very bright. Color rendering index CRI is a measure of how well colors can be perceived using light from a source, relative to light from a reference source such as daylight or a blackbody of the same color temperature.

By definition, an incandescent lamp has a CRI of Real-life fluorescent tubes achieve CRIs of anywhere from 50 to Fluorescent lamps with low CRI have phosphors that emit too little red light.

Skin appears less pink, and hence "unhealthy" compared with incandescent lighting. Colored objects appear muted. For example, a low CRI K halophosphate tube an extreme example will make reds appear dull red or even brown.

Since the eye is relatively less efficient at detecting red light, an improvement in color rendering index, with increased energy in the red part of the spectrum, may reduce the overall luminous efficacy.

Lighting arrangements use fluorescent tubes in an assortment of tints of white. Mixing tube types within fittings can improve the color reproduction of lower quality tubes.

This phosphor mainly emits yellow and blue light, and relatively little green and red. In the absence of a reference, this mixture appears white to the eye, but the light has an incomplete spectrum.

The color rendering index CRI of such lamps is around Since the s, higher-quality fluorescent lamps use either a higher-CRI halophosphate coating, or a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, which have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.

High-CRI halophosphate and triphosphor tubes give a more natural color reproduction to the human eye. The CRI of such lamps is typically 82— Fluorescent lamps come in many shapes and sizes.

Many compact fluorescent lamps integrate the auxiliary electronics into the base of the lamp, allowing them to fit into a regular light bulb socket.

In US residences, fluorescent lamps are mostly found in kitchens , basements , or garages , but schools and businesses find the cost savings of fluorescent lamps to be significant and rarely use incandescent lights.

Tax incentives and building codes result in higher use in places such as California. In other countries, residential use of fluorescent lighting varies depending on the price of energy, financial and environmental concerns of the local population, and acceptability of the light output.

In East and Southeast Asia it is very rare to see incandescent bulbs in buildings anywhere. Some countries are encouraging the phase-out of incandescent light bulbs and substitution of incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps or other types of energy-efficient lamps.

In addition to general lighting, special fluorescent lights are often used in stage lighting for film and video production.

They are cooler than traditional halogen light sources, and use high-frequency ballasts to prevent video flickering and high color-rendition index lamps to approximate daylight color temperatures.

Fluorescent lamps convert more of the input power to visible light than incandescent lamps. Fluorescent lamp efficacy is dependent on lamp temperature at the coldest part of the lamp.

In T8 lamps this is in the center of the tube. In T5 lamps this is at the end of the tube with the text stamped on it.

Typically a fluorescent lamp will last 10 to 20 times as long as an equivalent incandescent lamp when operated several hours at a time. Under standard test conditions fluorescent lamps last 6, to 80, hours 2 to 27 years at 8 hours per day.

The higher initial cost of a fluorescent lamp compared with an incandescent lamp is usually compensated for by lower energy consumption over its life.

And while most of us have an idea of what reflux is, the specifics can still be a little confusing. Reflux is the shortened term for Gastro-oesophageal reflux, or GOR.

Because babies are small and their digestive system is immature, milk can easily pass from their stomach back up into their oesophagus food pipe.

The oesophagus is the tube which connects the mouth to the stomach. Another cause for reflux is when the sphincter, or muscle at the bottom of the oesophagus relaxes and allows milk to flow back out of the stomach.

Ideally, the sphincter opens to let milk into the stomach and then closes to keep milk in. This can cause heartburn, vomiting and nausea.

Sometimes the milk goes into the trachea windpipe which causes coughing or infection. With time and gut maturity, most babies outgrow reflux and have no long lasting digestive problems because of it.

Milk begins its digestion in the mouth and then, when it reaches the stomach, enzymes and acid are released to help break it down. The lining of the stomach is designed to withstand the effects of acid; however, the oesophagus is not.

As the milk rises up into the oesophagus it can cause pain. Some babies seem to bring up milk as effortlessly as they smile.

Without any warning, milk comes out of their mouth as easily as it flowed in. On a spectrum of reflux-related symptoms, these babies are the easiest to manage.

Other babies show some distress when they reflux. There can be discomfort or pain as the milk regurgitates from their stomach into their oesophagus.

This may also be influenced by uncomfortable gut sensations which cause the baby to feel insecure. This is one reason why soothing and reassurance from parents can make a big difference to babies who are experiencing reflux symptoms.

It is true that over this time span, some babies do need more active treatment for their reflux, especially when it is impacting on their growth and general health.

Changes in position, holding them upright after feeds, gentle handling and comforting can all make a big difference.

Sometimes changes in feeding are recommended, especially if the baby is also showing signs of sensitivity to specific milk proteins.

Where necessary, medications may also be prescribed to help reduce the symptoms of discomfort and improve the way milk is digested within the stomach.

Please help us get your order to you faster with any delivery instructions, for example: "Leave in a safe place if no one is home". For mums who are able to, breastfeeding is best for babies.

It delivers many benefits for both mum and baby.

What makes Bubs Different? Delivery Instructions Please help us get your order to you faster with any delivery instructions, for example: "Leave in a safe place if no one is home".

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Book the bubs. Tufts' Oldest male A cappella Group. See The Bubs Perform. See Full Schedule. Fun Through Song Since If the lamp does not ignite, an electronic circuit stops the operation of the ballast.

Many electronic ballasts are controlled by a microcontroller , and these are sometimes called digital ballasts. Digital ballasts can apply quite complex logic to lamp starting and operation.

This enables functions such as testing for broken electrodes and missing tubes before attempting to start, detection of tube replacement, and detection of tube type, such that a single ballast can be used with several different tubes.

Features such as dimming can be included in the embedded microcontroller software, and can be found in various manufacturers' products.

Since introduction in the s, high-frequency ballasts have been used in general lighting fixtures with either rapid start or pre-heat lamps.

These ballasts convert the incoming power to an output frequency in excess of 20 kHz. This increases lamp efficiency.

The life expectancy of a fluorescent lamp is primarily limited by the life of the cathode electrodes. To sustain an adequate current level, the electrodes are coated with an emission mixture of metal oxides.

Every time the lamp is started, and during operation, some small amount of the cathode coating is sputtered off the electrodes by the impact of electrons and heavy ions within the tube.

The sputtered material collects on the walls of the tube, darkening it. The starting method and frequency affects cathode sputtering.

A filament may also break, disabling the lamp. Low-mercury designs of lamps may fail when mercury is absorbed by the glass tube, phosphor, and internal components, and is no longer available to vaporize in the fill gas.

Loss of mercury initially causes an extended run-up time to full light output, and finally causes the lamp to glow a dim pink when the argon gas takes over as the primary discharge.

Subjecting the tube to asymmetric current flow, effectively operates it under a DC bias, and causes asymmetric distribution of mercury ions along the tube.

The localized depletion of mercury vapor pressure manifests as pink luminescence of the base gas in the vicinity of one of the electrodes, and the operating lifetime of the lamp may be dramatically shortened.

This can be an issue with some poorly designed inverters. The phosphors lining the lamp degrade with time as well, until a lamp no longer produces an acceptable fraction of its initial light output.

Failure of the integral electronic ballast of a compact fluorescent bulb will also end its usable life. The spectrum of light emitted from a fluorescent lamp is the combination of light directly emitted by the mercury vapor, and light emitted by the phosphorescent coating.

The spectral lines from the mercury emission and the phosphorescence effect give a combined spectral distribution of light that is different from those produced by incandescent sources.

The relative intensity of light emitted in each narrow band of wavelengths over the visible spectrum is in different proportions compared to that of an incandescent source.

Colored objects are perceived differently under light sources with differing spectral distributions. For example, some people find the color rendition produced by some fluorescent lamps to be harsh and displeasing.

A healthy person can sometimes appear to have an unhealthy skin tone under fluorescent lighting. The extent to which this phenomenon occurs is related to the light's spectral composition, and may be gauged by its color rendering index CRI.

Correlated color temperature CCT is a measure of the "shade" of whiteness of a light source compared with a blackbody. Typical incandescent lighting is K, which is yellowish-white.

Warm-white fluorescents have CCT of K and are popular for residential lighting. Cool-white fluorescents have a CCT of K and are popular for office lighting.

High CCT lighting generally requires higher light levels. At dimmer illumination levels, the human eye perceives lower color temperatures as more pleasant, as related through the Kruithof curve.

So, a dim K incandescent lamp appears comfortable and a bright K lamp also appears natural, but a dim K fluorescent lamp appears too pale. Daylight-type fluorescents look natural only if they are very bright.

Color rendering index CRI is a measure of how well colors can be perceived using light from a source, relative to light from a reference source such as daylight or a blackbody of the same color temperature.

By definition, an incandescent lamp has a CRI of Real-life fluorescent tubes achieve CRIs of anywhere from 50 to Fluorescent lamps with low CRI have phosphors that emit too little red light.

Skin appears less pink, and hence "unhealthy" compared with incandescent lighting. Colored objects appear muted. For example, a low CRI K halophosphate tube an extreme example will make reds appear dull red or even brown.

Since the eye is relatively less efficient at detecting red light, an improvement in color rendering index, with increased energy in the red part of the spectrum, may reduce the overall luminous efficacy.

Lighting arrangements use fluorescent tubes in an assortment of tints of white. Mixing tube types within fittings can improve the color reproduction of lower quality tubes.

This phosphor mainly emits yellow and blue light, and relatively little green and red. In the absence of a reference, this mixture appears white to the eye, but the light has an incomplete spectrum.

The color rendering index CRI of such lamps is around Since the s, higher-quality fluorescent lamps use either a higher-CRI halophosphate coating, or a triphosphor mixture, based on europium and terbium ions, which have emission bands more evenly distributed over the spectrum of visible light.

High-CRI halophosphate and triphosphor tubes give a more natural color reproduction to the human eye. The CRI of such lamps is typically 82— Fluorescent lamps come in many shapes and sizes.

Many compact fluorescent lamps integrate the auxiliary electronics into the base of the lamp, allowing them to fit into a regular light bulb socket.

In US residences, fluorescent lamps are mostly found in kitchens , basements , or garages , but schools and businesses find the cost savings of fluorescent lamps to be significant and rarely use incandescent lights.

Tax incentives and building codes result in higher use in places such as California. In other countries, residential use of fluorescent lighting varies depending on the price of energy, financial and environmental concerns of the local population, and acceptability of the light output.

In East and Southeast Asia it is very rare to see incandescent bulbs in buildings anywhere. Some countries are encouraging the phase-out of incandescent light bulbs and substitution of incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps or other types of energy-efficient lamps.

In addition to general lighting, special fluorescent lights are often used in stage lighting for film and video production. They are cooler than traditional halogen light sources, and use high-frequency ballasts to prevent video flickering and high color-rendition index lamps to approximate daylight color temperatures.

Fluorescent lamps convert more of the input power to visible light than incandescent lamps. Fluorescent lamp efficacy is dependent on lamp temperature at the coldest part of the lamp.

In T8 lamps this is in the center of the tube. In T5 lamps this is at the end of the tube with the text stamped on it.

Typically a fluorescent lamp will last 10 to 20 times as long as an equivalent incandescent lamp when operated several hours at a time. Under standard test conditions fluorescent lamps last 6, to 80, hours 2 to 27 years at 8 hours per day.

The higher initial cost of a fluorescent lamp compared with an incandescent lamp is usually compensated for by lower energy consumption over its life.

Compared with an incandescent lamp, a fluorescent tube is a more diffuse and physically larger light source.

In suitably designed lamps, light can be more evenly distributed without point source of glare such as seen from an undiffused incandescent filament; the lamp is large compared to the typical distance between lamp and illuminated surfaces.

Fluorescent lamps give off about one-fifth the heat of equivalent incandescent lamps. This greatly reduces the size, cost, and energy consumption devoted to air conditioning for office buildings that would typically have many lights and few windows.

Frequent switching more than every 3 hours will shorten the life of lamps. Fixtures for flashing lights such as for advertising use a ballast that maintains cathode temperature when the arc is off, preserving the life of the lamp.

The extra energy used to start a fluorescent lamp is equivalent to a few seconds of normal operation; it is more energy-efficient to switch off lamps when not required for several minutes.

If a fluorescent lamp is broken, a very small amount of mercury can contaminate the surrounding environment.

Due to the mercury content, discarded fluorescent lamps must be treated as hazardous waste. For large users of fluorescent lamps, recycling services are available in some areas, and may be required by regulation.

Fluorescent lamps emit a small amount of ultraviolet UV light. A study in the US found that ultraviolet exposure from sitting under fluorescent lights for eight hours is equivalent to one minute of sun exposure.

Museum artifacts may need protection from UV light to prevent degradation of pigments or textiles. Fluorescent lamps require a ballast to stabilize the current through the lamp, and to provide the initial striking voltage required to start the arc discharge.

Often one ballast is shared between two or more lamps. Electromagnetic ballasts can produce an audible humming or buzzing noise. Magnetic ballasts are usually filled with a tar -like potting compound to reduce emitted noise.

Hum is eliminated in lamps with a high-frequency electronic ballast. Simple inductive fluorescent lamp ballasts have a power factor of less than unity.

Inductive ballasts include power factor correction capacitors. Simple electronic ballasts may also have low power factor due to their rectifier input stage.

Fluorescent lamps are a non-linear load and generate harmonic currents in the electrical power supply. The arc within the lamp may generate radio frequency noise, which can be conducted through power wiring.

Suppression of radio interference is possible. Very good suppression is possible, but adds to the cost of the fluorescent fixtures. Fluorescent lamps near end of life can present a serious radio frequency interference hazard.

Oscillations are generated from the negative differential resistance of the arc, and the current flow through the tube can form a tuned circuit whose frequency depends on path length.

Fluorescent lamps operate best around room temperature. At lower or higher temperatures, efficacy decreases.

At below-freezing temperatures standard lamps may not start. Special lamps may used for reliable service outdoors in cold weather. Fluorescent tubes are long, low-luminance sources compared with high pressure arc lamps, incandescent lamps and LEDs.

However, low luminous intensity of the emitting surface is useful because it reduces glare. Lamp fixture design must control light from a long tube instead of a compact globe.

The compact fluorescent lamp CFL replaces regular incandescent bulbs in many light fixtures where space permits. A stroboscopic effect can be noticed, where something spinning at just the right speed may appear stationary if illuminated solely by a single fluorescent lamp.

This effect is eliminated by paired lamps operating on a lead-lag ballast. Unlike a true strobe lamp, the light level drops in appreciable time and so substantial "blurring" of the moving part would be evident.

This happens if a damaged or failed cathode results in slight rectification and uneven light output in positive and negative going AC cycles.

Power frequency flicker can be emitted from the ends of the tubes, if each tube electrode produces a slightly different light output pattern on each half-cycle.

Flicker at power frequency is more noticeable in the peripheral vision than it is when viewed directly. Near the end of life, fluorescent lamps can start flickering at a frequency lower than the power frequency.

This is due to instability in the negative resistance of arc discharge, [74] which can be from a bad lamp or ballast or poor connection.

New fluorescent lamps may show a twisting spiral pattern of light in a part of the lamp. This effect is due to loose cathode material and usually disappears after a few hours of operation.

Electromagnetic ballasts may also cause problems for video recording as there can be a so-called beat effect between the video frame rate and the fluctuations in intensity of the fluorescent lamp.

Operating frequencies of electronic ballasts are selected to avoid interference with infrared remote controls. Fluorescent light fixtures cannot be connected to dimmer switches intended for incandescent lamps.

Two effects are responsible for this: the waveform of the voltage emitted by a standard phase-control dimmer interacts badly with many ballasts, and it becomes difficult to sustain an arc in the fluorescent tube at low power levels.

Dimming installations require a compatible dimming ballast. Some models of compact fluorescent lamps can be dimmed; in the United States, such lamps are identified as complying with UL standard Systematic nomenclature identifies mass-market lamps as to general shape, power rating, length, color, and other electrical and illuminating characteristics.

Overdriving a fluorescent lamp is a method of getting more light from each tube than is obtained under rated conditions. ODNO Overdriven Normal Output fluorescent tubes are generally used when there isn't enough room to put in more bulbs to increase the light.

The method is effective, but generates some additional issues. This technique has become popular among aquatic gardeners as a cost-effective way to add more light to their aquariums.

Overdriving is done by rewiring lamp fixtures to increase lamp current; however, lamp life is reduced. They are built in the same fashion as conventional fluorescent lamps but the glass tube is coated with a phosphor that converts the short-wave UV within the tube to long-wave UV rather than to visible light.

They are used to provoke fluorescence to provide dramatic effects using blacklight paint and to detect materials such as urine and certain dyes that would be invisible in visible light as well as to attract insects to bug zappers.

So-called blacklite blue lamps are also made from more expensive deep purple glass known as Wood's glass rather than clear glass.

The deep purple glass filters out most of the visible colors of light directly emitted by the mercury-vapor discharge, producing proportionally less visible light compared with UV light.

This allows UV-induced fluorescence to be seen more easily thereby allowing blacklight posters to seem much more dramatic.

The blacklight lamps used in bug zappers do not require this refinement so it is usually omitted in the interest of cost; they are called simply blacklite and not blacklite blue.

The lamps used in tanning beds contain a different phosphor blend typically 3 to 5 or more phosphors that emits both UVA and UVB, provoking a tanning response in most human skin.

One common phosphor used in these lamps is lead-activated barium disilicate, but a europium-activated strontium fluoroborate is also used.

Early lamps used thallium as an activator, but emissions of thallium during manufacture were toxic. The lamps used in phototherapy contain a phosphor that emits only UVB ultraviolet light.

Because of the longer wavelength, the narrowband UVB bulbs do not cause erytherma in the skin like the broadband. The narrowband is good for psoriasis, eczema atopic dermatitis , vitiligo, lichen planus, and some other skin diseases.

Grow lamps contain phosphor blends that encourage photosynthesis , growth, or flowering in plants, algae, photosynthetic bacteria, and other light-dependent organisms.

These often emit light primarily in the red and blue color range, which is absorbed by chlorophyll and used for photosynthesis in plants.

Lamps can be made with a lithium metaluminate phosphor activated with iron. This phosphor has peak emissions between and nanometers, with lesser emissions in the deep red part of the visible spectrum.

Deep blue light generated from a europium -activated phosphor is used in the light therapy treatment of jaundice ; light of this color penetrates skin and helps in the breakup of excess bilirubin.

Germicidal lamps contain no phosphor at all, making them mercury vapor gas discharge lamps rather than fluorescent. Their tubes are made of fused quartz transparent to the UVC light emitted by the mercury discharge.

Lamps labeled OF block the In addition the UVC can cause eye and skin damage. They are sometimes used by geologists to identify certain species of minerals by the color of their fluorescence when fitted with filters that pass the short-wave UV and block visible light produced by the mercury discharge.

Germicidal lamps have designations beginning with G, for example G30T8 for a watt, 1-inch 2. Electrodeless induction lamps are fluorescent lamps without internal electrodes.

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